[page:Material] →


A material for non-shiny surfaces, without specular highlights.

The material uses a non-physically based [link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambertian_reflectance Lambertian] model for calculating reflectance. This can simulate some surfaces (such as untreated wood or stone) well, but cannot simulate shiny surfaces with specular highlights (such as varnished wood).

Shading is calculated using a [link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gouraud_shading Gouraud] shading model. This calculates shading per vertex (i.e. in the [link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shader#Vertex_shaders vertex shader]) and interpolates the results over the polygon's faces.

Due to the simplicity of the reflectance and illumination models, performance will be greater when using this material over the [page:MeshPhongMaterial], [page:MeshStandardMaterial] or [page:MeshPhysicalMaterial], at the cost of some graphical accuracy.


[name]( [param:Object parameters] )

[page:Object parameters] - (optional) an object with one or more properties defining the material's appearance. Any property of the material (including any property inherited from [page:Material]) can be passed in here.

The exception is the property [page:Hexadecimal color], which can be passed in as a hexadecimal string and is *0xffffff* (white) by default. [page:Color.set]( color ) is called internally.


See the base [page:Material] class for common properties.

[property:Texture alphaMap]

The alpha map is a grayscale texture that controls the opacity across the surface (black: fully transparent; white: fully opaque). Default is null.

Only the color of the texture is used, ignoring the alpha channel if one exists. For RGB and RGBA textures, the [page:WebGLRenderer WebGL] renderer will use the green channel when sampling this texture due to the extra bit of precision provided for green in DXT-compressed and uncompressed RGB 565 formats. Luminance-only and luminance/alpha textures will also still work as expected.

[property:Texture aoMap]

The red channel of this texture is used as the ambient occlusion map. Default is null. The aoMap requires a second set of UVs.

[property:Float aoMapIntensity]

Intensity of the ambient occlusion effect. Default is 1. Zero is no occlusion effect.

[property:Color color]

[page:Color] of the material, by default set to white (0xffffff).

[property:Integer combine]

How to combine the result of the surface's color with the environment map, if any.

Options are [page:Materials THREE.Multiply] (default), [page:Materials THREE.MixOperation], [page:Materials THREE.AddOperation]. If mix is chosen, the [page:.reflectivity] is used to blend between the two colors.

[property:Color emissive]

Emissive (light) color of the material, essentially a solid color unaffected by other lighting. Default is black.

[property:Texture emissiveMap]

Set emissive (glow) map. Default is null. The emissive map color is modulated by the emissive color and the emissive intensity. If you have an emissive map, be sure to set the emissive color to something other than black.

[property:Float emissiveIntensity]

Intensity of the emissive light. Modulates the emissive color. Default is 1.

[property:Texture envMap]

The environment map. Default is null.

[property:Texture lightMap]

The light map. Default is null. The lightMap requires a second set of UVs.

[property:Float lightMapIntensity]

Intensity of the baked light. Default is 1.

[property:Texture map]

The color map. Default is null.

[property:Float reflectivity]

How much the environment map affects the surface; also see [page:.combine].

[property:Float refractionRatio]

The index of refraction (IOR) of air (approximately 1) divided by the index of refraction of the material. It is used with environment mapping modes [page:Textures THREE.CubeRefractionMapping] and [page:Textures THREE.EquirectangularRefractionMapping]. The refraction ratio should not exceed 1. Default is *0.98*.

[property:Texture specularMap]

Specular map used by the material. Default is null.

[property:Boolean wireframe]

Render geometry as wireframe. Default is *false* (i.e. render as flat polygons).

[property:String wireframeLinecap]

Define appearance of line ends. Possible values are "butt", "round" and "square". Default is 'round'.

This corresponds to the [link:https://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Web/API/CanvasRenderingContext2D/lineCap 2D Canvas lineCap] property and it is ignored by the [page:WebGLRenderer WebGL] renderer.

[property:String wireframeLinejoin]

Define appearance of line joints. Possible values are "round", "bevel" and "miter". Default is 'round'.

This corresponds to the [link:https://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Web/API/CanvasRenderingContext2D/lineJoin 2D Canvas lineJoin] property and it is ignored by the [page:WebGLRenderer WebGL] renderer.

[property:Float wireframeLinewidth]

Controls wireframe thickness. Default is 1.

Due to limitations of the [link:https://www.khronos.org/registry/OpenGL/specs/gl/glspec46.core.pdf OpenGL Core Profile] with the [page:WebGLRenderer WebGL] renderer on most platforms linewidth will always be 1 regardless of the set value.


See the base [page:Material] class for common methods.


[link:https://github.com/mrdoob/three.js/blob/master/src/[path].js src/[path].js]